埃及專家:從這個「中國奇蹟」里,非洲可以學到什麼?

2019年03月20日     2,830     檢舉

今年兩會上,李克強總理在政府工作報告中提到,過去一年,中國精準脫貧有力推進,農村貧困人口減少1386萬。2019年經濟社會發展的主要預期目標包括:中國城鎮新增就業1100萬人以上,農村貧困人口減少1000萬以上。

Last year, precision poverty alleviation made significant progress, with the rural poor population reduced by 13.86 million. During the 2019 annual sessions of the National People's Congress (NPC) and the National Committee of the Chinese People's Political Consultative Conference (CPPCC), the government work report shows that China aims to create over 11 million new urban jobs and to reduce rural poor population by over 10 million in 2019.

2013年11月,習近平主席到湖南湘西考察時首次提出「精準扶貧」的重要思想。在那之後,中國的脫貧工作取得了重大進展,累計脫貧超六千萬人。

Since the end of 2013 when Chinese President Xi Jinping put forward a comprehensive poverty eradication agenda, the country has made tremendous progress by lifting more than 60 million people out of poverty.

2019年3月5日,第十三屆全國人民代表大會第二次會議在北京人民大會堂開幕。(圖/新華社)

The second session of the 13th National People's Congress opens at the Great Hall of the People in Beijing, capital of China, March 5, 2019. (Photo/Xinhua)

在我看來,中國有兩項令世界刮目相看的成果:一是經過40年壯觀的經濟復興,中國已經成為世界第二大經濟體;二是脫貧攻堅取得了決定性進展,並計劃在2020年實現農村貧困人口全部脫貧。

China has impressed the world for two reasons: One is that it achieved an immense economic renaissance to become the world's second largest economy and the other is that it had made huge strides in fighting poverty, with an aim to become a poverty-free country by 2020.

非洲國家迫切希望能夠從中國的脫貧攻堅工作中汲取經驗。在這篇文章里,我會試著去探討中國的脫貧方案,並從中總結出值得非洲借鑑的經驗。

There is no doubt that the African continent desperately needs to draw lessons from the Chinese experience of fighting poverty. In this article we will try to discuss this experience and how to make use of it.

中國如何減少貧困人口?

How China Reduces Poverty

改革開放、下放權力、開展反腐行動以及推動城鎮化……以上這些行之有效的政策都是中國實現發展目標以及扶貧的「利器」。

Reform and opening-up, decentralization, anti-corruption and urbanization are the most important tools in China's roadmap for achieving its development goals and fighting poverty.

毋庸置疑,強勁穩定的經濟增長是減貧的主要動力。中國自1978年開始進行改革開放以來,經濟年均增長率達到9.5%,就業規模也隨之擴大,賺錢的機會不斷湧現。中國政府擁有強大的領導力,也有能力幫助貧困群體甩掉貧困帽子。

There is no doubt that robust and long-term economic growth is the main driver of poverty reduction, and China's economic development, with an average growth rate of 9.5 percent annually since the beginning of its reform and opening-up in 1978, has created more jobs and more opportunities to increase incomes. The Chinese government has become stronger and more capable of helping the underprivileged to shake off poverty.

2017年5月22日,工作人員在安徽省黃山市黃山區譚家橋鎮長羅村查看光伏發電設備。

Staff members look at photovoltaic power generation equipment in Changluo Village, Tanjiaqiao Town, Huangshan District, Huangshan City, Anhui Province, May 22, 2017.

中國實行權力下放政策,讓地方政府擁有更多的權力,使其能夠迅速地作出重要決策,從而吸引並穩定當地投資。

China has pursued a policy of decentralization of governance, giving local governments greater powers that enable them to make swift and important decisions to attract and stabilize investments.

與此同時,自1990年起,中國便開展了大規模的反腐行動,並獎勵、升遷在政府工作中表現出色的公職人員,此舉促進了政策實施和投資效率。

At the same time, China has carried out extensive campaigns since 1990 to fight corruption and reward and promote officials who made outstanding performance in governance, which has given efficiency to all policies and investments.

在我看來,鄉村發展與城鎮化是脫貧攻堅中最有效、快速的途徑。我注意到,李克強總理在過去五年的政府工作報告中都做了這樣一個承諾——中國將以每年一千萬人的速度減少貧困人口。

The development and urbanization of villages is the strongest way to achieve a rapid surge in the battle against poverty. Premier Li Keqiang has pledged in his government work reports over the past five years to reduce the number of poor people by 10 million every year.

2017年5月18日,中國海南省五指山市范陽鎮,一名村民在田間搬運收穫的秋葵。(圖/新華社)

A villager carries harvested okra among fields in Fanyang Town, Wuzhishan City of south China’s Hainan Province, May 18, 2017. (Photo/Xinhua)

2018年,中國有1386萬人脫離貧困。如此亮眼的成績,離不開鄉村貧困地區基礎設施建設的加速發展以及現代化網際網路建設取得的新進展。這一年,中國在鄉村修建、翻新了20.8萬公里的道路,鄉村地區網際網路覆蓋率達到94%,令人驚嘆!

In 2018, 13.86 million people were lifted out of poverty. The remarkable achievement was partially attributed to the accelerating development of infrastructure in poverty-stricken rural areas, where some 208,000 kilometers of roads were built or renovated. Moreover, new progress was made in modernizing the internet networks in China's rural areas, with 94 percent of poor villages covered.

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